could have done 的用法小结

投稿:Mabel作者:佚名 [我的文集]来源: 时间:2015-05-13 13:41:41 阅读:69

  1. 表示主观猜测

  即对已经发生动作或已经存在的状态作出主观上的猜测,通常可译为“可能(已经)”,有时需根据具体语境来翻译。如:

  Tom could have taken the money; he was here alone yesterday. 有可能是汤姆把钱拿走了,昨天他单独一个人在这里呆过。

  We knew he couldn’t have paid for it, because he had no money. 我们知道不可能是他付了这笔钱,因为他没钱。

  该用法也可将could换成can,但这只限于否定句和疑问句,因为can表推测时不用于肯定句(而could可以用于肯定句)。如:

  Can he have left already? 他会已经离开了吗?

  They can’t have gone out because the light’s on. 他们不可能出去了,因为灯还亮着。

  2. 表示未曾实现的能力

  即表示过去本来有能力可以做某事的,但实际上没有那样去做,通常译为“本来可以”“本来能力”等。如:

  The worst of it is that I could have prevented the accident. 最糟糕的是我本来可以防止这次事故的。

  I could have passed my examination easily but I made too many stupid mistakes. 我本可以轻易通过考试,但我犯了太多不该犯的错误。

  有时用于反语。如:

  You’ve broken my pen—thanks for nothing, I could have done that for myself. 你把我的笔给弄坏了——你得了吧,就那我自己也会弄。

  3. 表示未实现的可能性

  即表示过去本来可能发生情况,而实际上没有发生,通常译为“本来可以”“本来可能”等。如:

  She could have been seriously injured. 她本来可能伤得很重的。(www.yygrammar.com)

  It’s difficult enough, but it could have been worse. 这事情够困难的了,本来可能会更糟呢。

  有时也可根据语境译为“好在没有”“差点”,尤其是当谈论的是“不好”的情况时。如:

  She felt miserable. She could have cried. 她感到很痛苦,她差点哭了。

  Why did you throw the bottle out of the window? Somebody could have been hurt. 你为什么把瓶子扔出窗外呢?好在没有砸伤人。

  4. 表示未曾实现的想法

  即表示过去本来有做某事的打算或意图,但实际上没有实现,通常译为“本来可以”。如:

  I could have lent you the money. Why didn’t you ask me? 我本来可以借这笔钱给你的。你为什么不向我提出?

  I could have given you some hints, but I suppose you thought yourself too grand. 我本可以给你点提示的,但是我认为你太自负了。

  5. 表示未曾实现的选择

  即表示过去本来可以有机会选择做某事,但实际上没有那样做,通常译为“本来可以”。如:

  You needn’t have typed it twice. You could have used a carbon. 你没必要打两遍的,你当时本可以用复写纸打。

  You needn’t have walked up; you could have taken the lift. 你没必要走着上去,你本来可以乘电梯的。

  6. 表示批评或责备

  即表示过去本来有责任或义务应该做某事的,但实际上却没有做成,含有批评和责备的意味,通常译为“本来应该”“本来可以”等。如:

  You could have started a little earlier. 你本可早点动身的。

  You could have helped me—why did you just sit and watch? 你本来可以帮我一把嘛——为什么你只是坐在那儿观望呢?

  7. 表示可能达到的极限

  表示即使人们尽力而为去做某事,但还是未能做成,通常用于否定句。如:

  I couldn’t have won, so I didn’t go in for the race. 反正我也赢不了,所以我就没有参加赛跑。

  I couldn’t have enjoyed myself more—it was a perfect day. 我玩得没法再痛快了——这一天简直痛快极了。

  8. 表示惊讶

  表示对所发生的情况感到惊奇,含有“竟然”的意味。如:

  It seems inconceivable that the accident could have happened so quickly. 这一事故发生得这么快,简直不可思议。

  Well, I’m blowed! I should never have thought you could have done it. 真想不到! 我从未想到居然办得到。

  9. 用于虚拟语气

  在虚拟条件句中,当谈论过去的情况时,其句型通常是:主句用“could / would / should /might +have+过去分词”,从句用过去完成时。如:

  If he had known the facts, he could have told us what to do. 如果他了解事实,他是可能告诉我们怎样做的。(www.yygrammar.com)

  If anybody had asked me, I could have told them what happened. 如果有谁问过我,我可以告诉他们发生了什么情况。

  10. 用于口语惯用表达

  如用于I could have sworn…,表示“我可以发誓”“我千真万确”。如:

  I could have sworn I’d paid that bill. 我可以发誓我付过账。

  I could have sworn I heard a knock at the door. 我千真万确听到了敲门声。