集体名词的用法总结

投稿:五月天作者:佚名 [我的文集]来源: 时间:2015-05-14 11:00:07 阅读:180

   一、集合名词表示整体和个体的问题

  英语中有些集合名词,既可表单数意义,也可表复数意义,其原则是:若视为整体,表示单数意义;若考虑其个体成员,表示复数意义。这类集合名词比较常见的有:army(军队),audience(观众),committee(委员会),crew(全体船员,全体乘务员,全体工作人员),enemy(敌人),family(家人),government(政府),group(一组,一群),public(公众),staff(全体职工,全体人员),team(队)等。比较:

  My family is very large [big]. 我家是大家庭。

  My family are all very well. 我家里人都很好。

  Which team is the best? 哪个队打得最好?

  The football team are having a rest. 足球队队员们在休息。

  The crew is large. 工作人员众多。

  The crew of the plane are ten in all. 这架飞机的机组人员一共10人。

  有时句子中带有明显的单数或复数标志,则应分别按单数或复数处理。如:

  The public is the best judge.=The public are the best judges. 公众是最好的判断者。

  如果句子没有特定的上下文,有时既可当作整体看待(即视为单数),也可当作个体看待(即视为复数)。如:

  The enemy was [were] forced to retreat. 敌人被迫撤退。

  The school’s teaching staff is [are] excellent. 学校师资很不错。

  The army was [were] called out to enforce the curfew. 军队被派去强制执行宵禁。

  Our discussion group is [are] meeting this week. 我们的讨论小组本周开会。

  The Government is [are] planning new tax increases. 政府正在制定新的增税方案。

  The audience is [are] always very excited by a wonderful goal. 一个精彩的进球总会使观众们非常激动。

  The committee who were [which was] responsible for this decision would consider it over again. 对这一决定负责的委员会是会重新考虑它的。

  二、用复数形式表示复数意义的集合名词

  goods(货物), clothes(衣服)等,其用法特点是:只有复数形式(当然也表示复数意义,用作主语时谓语也用复数),但通常不与数词连用。如:

  Such clothes are very expensive. 那样的衣服很贵。

  To whom do these goods belong? 这些书是谁的?

  三、永远不可数的集合名词

  英语中有些名词是永远不可数的,这类词在中学英语也不少,但真正常考并且容易出错的则不多,比较常见的:baggage / luggage(行李), clothing(衣服), furniture(家具), machinery(机器), poetry(诗), scenery(风景), jewelry(珠宝),equipment(设备)等, 其用法特点为:是不可数名词,只用单数形式,不用不定冠词(当然更不能用数词),没有复数形式。如:

  Our clothing protects us from [against] the cold. 我们的衣服可以御寒。

  Have you checked all your baggage? 你所有行李都托运了吗?

  注意,machinery, poetry, jewelry, scenery 相应的个体可数名词是machine, poem, jewel, scene。如:

  a poem / a piece of poetry 一首诗

  many machines / much machinery / many pieces of machinery 许多机器