英语中表示季节的四个名词的九大用法

投稿:lucky作者:佚名 [我的文集]来源: 时间:2015-06-01 22:07:57 阅读:90

  季节名词指的是spring, summer, autumn, winter四个表示季节的名词,使用时注意以下几点:

  1. 在泛指的情况下,季节名词前通常不用冠词。如:

  Spring is my favourite season. 春天是我最喜欢的季节。

  The days get shorter as winter approaches. 冬天来临白天越来越短了。

  The climate here is always hot, summer and winter alike. 这里的气候总是那么热, 夏季和冬季都一样。

  2. 若特指某一年的某一季节,则要用定冠词。如:

  He was born in the summer of 1979. 他生于1979年夏季。

  He came to China in the autumn of 1949. 他1949年秋来到中国。

  有时这种特指是通过语境来体现的(如指今年或当年的某一季节)。如:

  The spring was foul this year—it was cold and wet for weeks. 今春天气恶劣,一连几个星期又冷又潮湿。

  The commander decided to postpone the big push until the spring. 指挥官决定把大规模的进攻推迟到春天进行。

  但是,有时即使语境上表明是今年或当年的某一季节,其前也可以不用定冠词。如:

  Summer has just flown by. 夏天一晃就过去了。

  We had a race to repair the house before winter. 我们争取在冬季到来以前修好房子。

  3. 当季节名词前有during, (all) through, throughout, over, most of等词时,一般要用定冠词。如:

  He lets out his house to tourists during the summer. 他夏天把房子租给游客。

  They worked on the building all through the winter. 他们整个冬天都在建这座楼。

  We’re planning to keep the cottage on over the summer. 我们打算夏天继续租那座别墅。

  It rained for most of the spring. 春天大部分时间都下雨。

  4. 当季节名词前有介词in时,用不用the均可。如:

  In (the) summer we go on holiday. 夏天我们常去度假。

  Maple leaves turn red in (the) autumn. 枫叶在秋天变红了。

  In (the) spring leaves begin to grow on the trees. 树木在春天开始长出叶子。

  但如果语境上是特指某一年(如今年或当年等),则通常要用定冠词。如:

  They plan to get married in the summer. 他们打算夏天结婚。

  The book will be published in the autumn. 这本书将于秋季出版。

  Our new model is already on the stocks and will be available in the autumn. 我们正着手生产一种新的款式,可望在秋季面世。

  5. 季节名词与all连用时,用不用定冠词均可,但在否定句中一般不用定冠词。如:

  She’ll be coaching all (the) summer. 她整个夏天将要做辅导工作。

  I haven’t seen her all autumn. 我整个秋天都没看到她。

  6. 当季节名词受描绘性定语修饰且表泛指意义时,其前通常要用不定冠词。如:

  We don’t often have a cold winter here. 我们这儿的冬天一般不冷。

  They say we’re going to have a hot summer. 据说今年夏天很热。

  当季节名词受early, late 修饰时,其前可以用定冠词,但以不用为多见。如:

  He stayed with us until (the) early autumn. 直到初秋他一直和我们待在一起。

  The lake was frozen over until late spring. 那湖全让冰封住了,到晚春才解冻。

  有时与a whole 连用,表示“整个”。如:

  She lived alone in the house for a whole winter. 她独自一人在这所房子里过了一冬。

  7. 当不强调时间而强调季节的内涵时,通常要用定冠词。比较:

  We have enough coal to see the winter out. 我们有足够的煤过冬。

  The plants have survived the winter. 这些植物经过冬天没有冻死。

  比较:

  Winter is coming. 冬天要来了。(单纯指冬季)

  The winter is coming. 冬天要来了。(暗示寒冷)

  In spring he swam in the rivers. 春天他到河里游泳。(单纯指春季)

  In the spring he swam in the rivers. 春天他到河里游泳。(暗示春回大地,冰融雪化,天气转暖等内涵)

  但有时有例外。如:

  At last winter came to an end. 冬天终于结束了。

  It’s getting colder: winter is coming on. 天气渐冷了,冬天来了。

  8. 表示季节的名词通常是不可数的,但若泛指多年的春(夏、秋、冬)季,则可用复数形式。如:

  Cold winters here are the exception rather than the rule. 这里冬天很少有冷的时候。

  The south has cool, wet winters and warm, dry summers. 南方冬季凉爽潮湿,夏季温暖干燥。

  No more dreary winters—we’re moving to Florida. 不会再有这样沉闷的冬天了,因为我们要搬到佛罗里达州去。

  有时还可以用数词、many、one of 等修饰季节名词。如:

  It’s been one of the coldest autumns for years. 这是多年来最冷的秋天。

  This happened many, many summers ago. 这个故事发生在很久很久以前的夏季。

  关于季节名词与不定冠词连用的情形,见上面一条的有关内容。

  9. 季节名词可以直接放在名词前作定语。如:

  I don’t quite like the spring weather here. 我不很喜欢这儿春天的天气。

  The summer crops were forward this year. 今年夏季农作物成熟得早。

  The countryside glowed with autumn colours. 郊野焕发出斑斓的秋色。

  I’ve stored my winter clothes away in the attic. 我把冬天的衣服存放在阁楼里了。

  summer和winter有时还可以用其所有格作定语(主要用于表示时间的day, night, evening等名词,此时也可以直接用名词作定语),但spring, autumn习惯上不用所有格。如:

  It happened on a cold winter night. 这事发生在严冬的一个夜晚。

 

  It happened on a cold winter’s night. 这事发生在严冬的一个夜晚。